Chronology of how the National Party and African National Congress were outsmarted by White Businessmen and Foreign Governments in taking over South Africa in 1989

By Mxolisi Ka Nkomonde, Tweet him @MxolisiBob

  • 26 June 1959 Anti-Apartheid Movement is born after Chief Albert Luthuli pleaded with the British to boycott South Africa
  • 3 February 1960 British Prime Minister Harold McMillan present his “Wind of change blowing across the continent” at South African Parliament in Cape Town
  • 21 March 1960 Demonstration against pass laws in Sharpeville ends with police killing 69 Africans.This was followed by foreign companies pulling out their investments in fear of instability. Oppenheimer owned and controlled Anglo American buys the shares with help from US banks to bailout the Apartheid regime
  • 08 April 1960 African National Congress(ANC) and Pan Africanist Party(PAC) banned by Apartheid regime
  • 5 October 1960 A referendum held with majority of Whites voting for South Africa to become an independent republic. Oppenheimer funded United Party and Progressive Party voted against South Africa becoming an independent republic (http://www.property24.com/articles/philanthropy-in-south-africa/20166)
  • 15 March 1961 HF Verwoed withdraws South Africa from CommonWealth after African States, India and Canada vehemently opposed the Apartheid system
  • 12 June 1964 Political activists sentenced to life imprisonment :Mandela, Sisulu, Kathrada, Mhlaba, Mbeki, Motsoaledi, Goldberg and Mlangeni
  • 16 June 1976 Student Uprising against Afrikaans
  • 19 September 1976 Ian Smith of Rhodesia meets with United States’ Secretary of State Henry Kissinger in Pretoria to discuss “majority rule” in Rhodesia
  • 1977 Urban Foundation “think tank” is founded by Harry Oppenheimer, Anton Rupert and Clive Menell.This Foundation introduced neoliberal housing policy for Blacks under the guise of “development”. Cyril Ramaphosa, Nthato Motlana and Phuthuma Ntleko became the leaders of this “development” Foundation
  • 4 August 1977 FW De Klerk informs American Embassy in Pretoria that new “reforms” to Apartheid are on the cards. The “reforms” are an Indian and Coloured parliament(Silent coup begins)
  • 12 September 1977 Steve Biko assassinated by Apartheid security forces
  • April 1978 Azanian Peoples Organisation is launched a movement based on Black Consciousness
  • 1979 Sasol 1 , Sasol 2 and Sasol 3 privatised to become Sasol
  • 21 December 1979 Lancaster Agreement signed leading to independence of Zimbabwe in 1981
  • 1981 Tricameral Parliament established by Prime Minister PW Botha. Tricameral Parliament was the implementation of the policies De Klerk “whispered” to the US Embassy in 1977
  • 1982 National Union of Mineworkers is founded with Oppenheimer funded Urban Foundation lawyer, Cyril Ramaphosa becoming its first General Secretary and James Motlatsi as first President
  • 1982 Harry Oppenheimer meets Henry Kissinger in South Africa to discuss the “end of Apartheid”
  • 1 April 1982 Nelson Mandela and three other ANC leaders moved from Robben Island to Pollsmoor
  • 1983 Oppenheimer controlled Chamber of Mines gives bargaining recognition to National Union of Mineworkers with Cyril Ramaphosa leading the mine workers
  • 1983 Alan Boesak, Simon Gqubule, Bishop Phillip Russell, John Thone and Charles Villa-Vicencio meet with members of the ANC during a World Council of Churches assembly, in Vancouver, Canada
  • 20 August 1983 United Democratic Front is founded in Mitchells Plain. The UDF will later be funded by Harry Oppenheimer with people such as Alan Boesak, Desmond Tutu, Frank Chikane, Terror Lekota, Vally Moosa, Albertina Sisulu, Sheryl Carolus,Trevor Manuel ,Pravin Gordhan and Popo Molefe on the upper echelons of its structures
  • August 1984 Hendrik W van der Merwe (Director, Centre for Inter-Group Studies, UCT) begins his mediation between Apartheid regime and ANC by meeting with Alfred Nzo and Thabo Mbeki in Lusaka
  • 8 October 1984 Hendrik W van der Merwe (Director, Centre for Inter-Group Studies,UCT) has a meeting with Nelson Mandela at Pollsmoor Prison
  • July 1985 Chase Manhattan Bank stops rolling over loans to South African government leading to a financial crisis in South Africa
  • 20 July 1985 President PW Botha declares a State of Emergency which gave more power to the police, the military and the president
  • 15 August 1985 President PW Botha presents his Rubicon speech announcing some “reforms” with strong emphasis that Apartheid would remain intact
  • September 1985 A delegation of White businessmen led by Gavin Relly (Anglo American) and Zach de Beer (Progressive Party funded by Oppenheimer) meets with Oliver Tambo, Thabo Mbeki, Chris Hani, Mac Maharaj and Pallo Jordan in Zambia
  • 30 November 1985 Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU) established with Jay Naidoo as first General Secretary and Elijah Barayi as first president
  • December 1985 Oliver Tambo meets with Timothy Bevan (Barclays Bank), Evelyn de Rothschild (Rothschild), George Soros and Tony Bloom in London invited by Tony Bloom
  • 29 May 1988 Ronald Regan and Mikhail Gorbachev summit which led to Tripartite Accord; a peace treaty between Angola, Cuba and South Africa. Namibia became independent from South Africa on 22 December 1988 as a result of the Tripartite Accord
  • 18 January 1989 PW Botha suffers a stroke then resigns as leader of National Party on 2 February 1989. Botha nominates finance minister Barend du Plessis as his successor as State President but the NP elected FW De Klerk in March 1989 as his successor which prompted Botha not to resign as President
  • 14 June 1989 Act No 90 of 1989, South African Reserve Bank Act of 1989 is passed which consolidates laws relating to South African Reserve Bank and the monetary system in South Africa. Preservation of Secrecy was added for the first time since the South African Reserve Bank was established in 1921 (Financial take over begins)
  • 14 August 1989 President PW Botha abruptly resigns as State President and FW De Klerk was sworn in as Acting President (Silent coup complete)
  • 15 October 1989 Political prisoners Walter Sisulu, Ahmed Kathrada, Andrew Mlangeni, Elias Motsoaledi, Raymond Mhlaba, Wilton Mkwayi and Oscar Mpetha are released after spending 26yrs in prison
  • 9 November 1989 Fall of Berlin Wall also known as symbol of the end of the Cold War
  • 1989 Iscor privatised
  • 1990 Independent Development Trust (IDT) is established as a Schedule 2 State Owned Entity largely taking on the “development” programmes of the Urban Foundation “think tank” which was setup in 1977 by Oppenheinheimer, Rupert and Menell. Chairman of Urban Foundation, Judge Jan Steyn becomes the head of IDT
  • 2 February 1990 President FW De Klerk announces release of Nelson Mandela and the unbanning of the African National Congress (ANC), Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) and South African Communist Party (SACP)
  • 1 April 1990 Transnet becomes a Limited Company
  • 4 May 1990 Groote Schuur Minute: Negotiations begin and came to a resolution that exiles should be immune from prosecution and more political prisoners should be released
  • 6 August 1990 Pretoria Minute: South African government and the African National Congress agree on the suspension of the armed struggle and the end of the state of emergency
  • 30 June 1991 Land Act of 1913 is repealed by the Abolition of Racially Based Land Measures Act
  • 20 August 1991 United Democratic Front (UDF) disbanded
  • 14 September 1991 National Peace Accord signed by 27 political organisations
  • 19 September 1991 Gencor Executive Chairman Derek Keys appointed Minister of Trade and Industry. This is the first time since 1948 that the National Party appoints a minister who is not a member of the National Party in a key and strategic position
  • 29 September 1991 Value Added Tax was introduced in South Africa at 10%
  • 20 December 1991 Convention for a Democratic South Africa (CODESA I) begins
  • 13 April 1992 Nelson Mandela announces intention to separate from Winnie Madikizela Mandela and moves in with Menell family .Clive Menell is one of the founders of the Urban Foundation which was established in 1977
  • May 1992 Convention for a Democratic South Africa (CODESA II) begins
  • 17 June 1992 Boipatong Massacre : 45 residents in the township of Boipatong are attacked and killed at night by by armed men from KwaMadala Hostel
  • September 1992 Former Gencor Executive Chairman and Former Minister of Trade and Industry is appointed as Minister of Finance (Financial takeover complete)
  • 1992 Leader of South African Communist Party, Joe Slovo, proposes “Sunset Clause” which means a coalition government will be put in place following a democratic election including guarantees and concessions to all parties
  • 10 April 1993 Leader of the SACP Chris Hani is assassinated
  • 27 October 1993 Transitional Executive Council Act is passed and the Transitional Executive Council takes over the functions of government with Nelson Mandela as President December
  • 1993 Transitional Executive Council takes $850m loan from International Monetary Fund with IMF manager Michel Camdessus informing Nelson Mandela that Apartheid era Finance Minister Derek Keys and Reserve Bank Governor Chris Stals must be reappointed after democratic elections as a condition for the loan
  • 27 April 1994 First democratic elections in South Africa with a universal franchise (Silent Coup legitimised)

References:

http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php/Urban_Foundation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1 Comment on "Chronology of how the National Party and African National Congress were outsmarted by White Businessmen and Foreign Governments in taking over South Africa in 1989"

  1. All this says anc all along were for civil rights not total liberation no wonder they fail in every turn

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